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European ASP.NET Core Hosting :: A Quick And Simple Look Into .NET Core And Comparison To .NET Standard

clock July 16, 2019 11:54 by author Peter
First, as Microsoft simply described, .NET Core is an open-source, general-purpose development platform maintained by Microsoft and the .NET community on GitHub. .NET is cross-platform which supports Windows, macOS, and Linux and can be used to implement devices, cloud, and IoT applications. Historically, the .NET Framework had only worked on Windows devices. The Xamarin and Mono projects worked to bring .NET to mobile devices, macOS, and Linux. .NET Core provides a standard base library that can now be used across Windows, Linux, macOS, and mobile devices, still via Xamarin.

.NET Core has multiple characteristics such as cross-platform programming for Windows, Linux, MacOS, as well as consistency across architectures. It runs your code with the same behavior on multiple architectures, including x64, x86, and ARM. .NET Core provides flexible deployment, can be included in your app or installed side-by-side such as user-wide or system-wide installations, and can be used with Docker containers.

.NET Core makes it simpler for developers to build microservice architecture systems promptly. As such, systems include several independent and dynamic microservices, the developers can focus on specific microservices. .NET Core enables programmers to develop custom microservices by using varying programming languages, technologies, and frameworks. Likewise, the developers can build a robust system by combining multiple microservices flawlessly.

PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE SUPPORT
From a programming point of view C#, Visual Basic, and F# languages can be used to write applications and libraries for .NET Core. Additionally, with .NET Core 3.0 C# 8.0 will be supported. Currently, VB.NET compiles and runs on .NET Core, but the separate Visual Basic Runtime is not implemented. Microsoft announced that .NET Core 3 would include the Visual Basic Runtime.

GENERAL SUPPORTED FEATURES
.NET Core supports four cross-platform scenarios: ASP.NET Core web apps, command-line apps, libraries, and Universal Windows Platform apps. However, it does not presently apply Windows Forms or WPF which render the standard GUI for desktop software on Windows. Also, .NET Core 3 supports desktop technologies WinForms, WPF and UWP. Besides these, .NET Core supports the use of NuGet packages. Differently than before like .NET Framework, which is serviced using Windows Update, .NET Core depends on its package manager to get updates.

.NET Core consists of CoreCLR, a whole runtime implementation of the Common Language Runtime, which created at Microsoft as the virtual machine for handling execution of .NET programs and includes a just-in-time compiler called RyuJIT. Moreover, .NET Core also contains CoreRT, the .NET Native runtime enhanced to be integrated into AOT compiled native binaries.

.NET Core also includes CoreFX, which is a partial branch of .NET Framework standard libraries. While .NET Core shares a subset of .NET Framework APIs and comes with its own API that is not a subset of .NET Framework. Also, a variant of the .NET Core library is used for UWP.

.NET Core's command-line interface provides an execution entry point for operating systems and gives developer services similar compilation and package management.

Use .NET Core when

  • You want to build cross-platform applications
  • If the new application (web or service) needs to run on multiple platforms- Windows, Linux, macOS, choose .NET Core over .NET Framework. Visual Studio Code and third-party editors such as Sublime, Emacs, VI support .NET Core for cross-platform development.
  • The need is to build high-performance and scalable systems
  • When a performance-oriented and scalable system is on the list, it is better to prefer .NET Core over the .NET Framework. Reason being, .NET Core offers high-performance server runtime for Linux and Windows Server.
  • When you are using microservices or Docker containers
  • For applications or services that use microservices or Docker containers, opting .NET Core makes more sense. Reasons include,
    • .NET Core facilitates mixing microservices or services developed with Ruby, Java, .NET Framework, or other monolithic technologies.
    • Containers usually work in conjugation with microservices architecture. With .NET Framework, there is a limitation to work with Windows containers only. Moreover, while creating and deploying a container, the image size is smaller with .NET Core vs .NET Framework.
  • You need side-by-side .NET versions per application
  • For applications that may have a dependency on different versions of .NET for installation, opt for .NET Core. .NET Core offers side by side installation of multiple versions for .NET Core runtime on the same machine.

Use the .NET Framework when:

  • The app is using .NET technologies that are not available for .NET Core.
  • Several .NET technologies are not available for .NET Core. For example, ASP.NET web pages applications or workflow related services (WCF Data Services, Windows Workflow Foundation) are not included in. NET Core.
  • The existing app uses a platform that .NET Core does not support.
  • Some of the Microsoft or third-party services/platforms do not offer support to .NET Core. For example, Azure’s Service Fabric Stateful Reliable Services programming model does not support .NET Core and is available for.NET Framework.

Finally, the .NET Framework supports Windows and web applications. .NET Core is the new open-source and cross-platform framework to build applications for all operating systems including Windows, Mac, and Linux. .NET Core supports UWP and ASP.NET Core only.

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European ASP.NET Core Hosting :: Register And Use Multiple Implementations Of A Dependency In ASP.NET Core Dependency Injection

clock July 12, 2019 12:13 by author Peter

There can be situations where you need to register multiple implementations of the same dependency for your applications. For example, if you want to add features to your application without changing the existing code, a good way to do it is to add a new implementation for that. Your application needs to be written in a certain way to do this correctly. We have a really simple example that demonstrates this in this article. But when you eventually need to do this, ASP.Net Core built-in Dependency Injection providers capabilities to achieve this. In this article, we will look at how to do this with an example.
Registering Multiple Implementations of a Dependency

As an example, let’s take an online e-commerce website. This site gives Discounts to the customers on certain occasions and when certain conditions are met. I have an interface called IDiscount where it defines a discount and the logic to calculate it. For each type of discount, you want to provide in your e-commerce application, you can have an implementation of the IDiscount interface. Then I have an interface called IDiscountProcessor where the implementation of this interface handles calling all the implementations of IDiscount to calculate the final discount for a given Order.

You have a couple of ways to register multiple implementations of a dependency in ASP.Net Core. One way is to just use the provided extension methods on IServiceCollection to register your implementations with the desired lifetime.
    services.AddScoped<IDiscountProcessor, OrderDiscountProcessor>(); 
    services.AddScoped<IDiscount, SeasonalDiscount>(); 
    services.AddScoped<IDiscount, LargeOrderDiscount>(); 
    services.AddScoped<IDiscount, ThreeOrModeDiscount>();  


Here, I have registered the OrderDiscountProcessor implementation of IDiscountProcessor and 3 implementations of IDiscount interface.

This will work fine when we eventually resolve all the implementations of IDiscount interface we can calculate the total discount. But the problem comes when you have multiple registrations of the same implementation. For example, let’s say one of the developers accidentally registered SeasonalDiscount implementation twice. What will happen is that the Seasonal discount will be applied twice for all the orders, costing the organization money.

A better way of registering multiple implementations is to use TryAddEnumerable extension method given in the Microsoft.Extensions.DependencyInjection.Extensions namespace. This will not register any duplicate implementations making multiple implementation registration safe. The registration is a bit different where you need to use ServiceDescriptors to register the dependency. The modified implementation looks like this.
    services.AddScoped<IDiscountProcessor, OrderDiscountProcessor>(); 
    services.TryAddEnumerable(new[] 
    { 
        ServiceDescriptor.Scoped<IDiscount, SeasonalDiscount>(), 
        ServiceDescriptor.Scoped<IDiscount, LargeOrderDiscount>(), 
        ServiceDescriptor.Scoped<IDiscount, ThreeOrModeDiscount>() 
    }); 


Injecting and Using Multiple Implementations of a Dependency

Once your implementations are registered with the Dependency Injection container, they are ready to be used. To inject all the registered implementations, you need to use IEnumerable<> of the implementation type in your constructor. So, your constructor would look something like this. This is our OrderDiscountProcessor implementation.
    public class OrderDiscountProcessor : IDiscountProcessor 
    { 
        private readonly IEnumerable<IDiscount> _discounts; 
     
        public OrderDiscountProcessor(IEnumerable<IDiscount> discounts) 
        { 
            _discounts = discounts; 
        } 
        // ... 
    } 


Here I am injecting IEnumerable<IDiscount> where it injects all the registered implementations to my class. Then in my ProcessDiscount() method I can use the implementations like this.
    public (double, List<string>) ProcessDiscount(OrderViewModel order) 
    { 
        var discountDiscroptoons = new List<string>(); 
        var totalDiscount = 0.0; 
     
        foreach (var discount in _discounts) 
        { 
            var addedDiscount = discount.CalculateDiscount(order); 
            if (addedDiscount > 0) 
            { 
                 discountDiscroptoons.Add(discount.Description); 
            } 
            totalDiscount += addedDiscount; 
        } 
     
        return (totalDiscount, discountDiscroptoons); 
     } 


I can now iterate through all the implementations of IDiscount interface and call its CalculateDiscount() method to calculate the discount for the given Order.

Note that you can only use IEnumerable<> for your injections of multiple implementations. Any other type like IList<>, ICollection<> will not work in this case.
Summary

In this article, we looked into the process of how to register multiple implementations of the same dependency in ASP.NET Core and how to use these dependencies in our classes by injecting them. The simple sample application used to demonstrate this usage is available for download with this article or you can find the source code on GitHub under the following repository

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European ASP.NET Core Hosting :: How to Host ASP.NET Core Application as a Windows Service

clock July 4, 2019 08:38 by author Scott

I recently came across the need to host a .NET Core web app as a Windows Service. In this case, it was because each machine needed to locally be running an API. But it’s actually pretty common to have a web interface to manage an application on a PC without needing to set up IIS. For example if you install a build/release management tool such as Jenkins or TeamCity, it has a web interface to manage the builds and this is able to be done without the need for installing and configuring an additional web server on the machine.

Luckily .NET Core actually has some really good tools for accomplishing all of this (And even some really awesome stuff for being able to run a .NET Core web server by double clicking an EXE if that’s your thing).

A Standalone .NET Core Website/Web Server

The first step actually has nothing to do with Windows Services. If you think about it, all a Windows Service is, is a managed application that’s hidden in the background, will restart on a machine reboot, and if required, will also restart on erroring. That’s it! So realistically what we first want to do is build a .NET Core webserver that can be run like an application, and then later on we can work out the services part.

For the purpose of this tutorial, I’m just going to be using the default template for an ASP.net Core website. The one that looks like this:

We first need to head to the csproj file of our project and add in a specific runtime (Or multiple), and an output type. So overall my csproj file ends up looking like:

<Project Sdk="Microsoft.NET.Sdk.Web">
  <PropertyGroup>
    <TargetFramework>netcoreapp2.1</TargetFramework>
    <RuntimeIdentifiers>win10-x64;</RuntimeIdentifiers>
    <OutputType>Exe</OutputType>
  </PropertyGroup> 

  <ItemGroup>
    <PackageReference Include="Microsoft.AspNetCore.App" />
  </ItemGroup>
</Project>

Our RuntimeIdentifiers (And importantly notice the “s” on the end there) specifies the runtimes our application can be built for. In my case I’m building only for Windows 10, but you could specify other runtime monkiers if required.

Ontop of this, we specify that we want an outputtype of exe, this is so we can have a nice complete exe to run rather than using the “dotnet run” command to start our application. I’m not 100% sure, but the exe output that comes out of this I think is simply a wrapper to boot up the actual application dll. I noticed this because when you change code and recompile, the exe doesn’t change at all, but the dll does.

Now we need to be able to publish the app as a standalone application. Why standalone? Because then it means any target machine doesn’t have to have the .NET Core runtime installed to get everything running. Ontop of that, there is no “what version do you have installed?” type talk. It’s just double click and run.

To publish a .NET Core app as standalone, you need to run the following command from the project directory in a command prompt/powershell:

dotnet publish --configuration Release --self-contained -r win10-x64

It should be rather self explanatory. We are doing a publish, using the release configuration, we pass through the self contained flag, and we pass through that the runtime we are building for is Windows 10 – 64 Bit.

From your project directory, you can head to:  \bin\Release\netcoreapp2.1\win10-x64\publish

This contains your application exe as well as all framework DLL’s to run without the need for a runtime to be installed on the machine. It’s important to note that you should be inside the Publish folder. One level up is also an exe but this is not standalone and relies on the runtime being installed.

From your publish folder, try double clicking yourapplication.exe.

Hosting environment: Production
Content root path: \bin\Release\netcoreapp2.1\win10-x64\publish
Now listening on:
http://localhost:5000
Now listening on: https://localhost:5001
Application started. Press Ctrl+C to shut down.

In your browser head to http://localhost:5000 and you now have your website running from an executable. You can copy and paste this publish folder onto any Windows 10 machine, even a fresh install, and have it spin up a webserver hosting your website. Pretty impressive!

Installing As A Window Service

So the next part of this tutorial is actually kinda straight forward. Now that you have an executable that hosts your website, installing it as a service is exactly the same as setting up any regular application as a service. But we will try and have some niceties to go along with it.

First we need to do a couple of code changes for our app to run both as a service, and still be OK running as an executable (Both for debugging purposes, and in case we want to run in a console window and not as a service).

We need to install the following from your package manager console:

Install-Package Microsoft.AspNetCore.Hosting.WindowsServices

Next we need to go into our program.exe and make your main method look like the following:

public static void Main(string[] args)
{
 var isService = !(Debugger.IsAttached || args.Contains("--console"));
 var builder = CreateWebHostBuilder(args.Where(arg => arg != "--console").ToArray()); 

 if (isService)
 {

 var pathToExe = Process.GetCurrentProcess().MainModule.FileName;
 var pathToContentRoot = Path.GetDirectoryName(pathToExe);
 builder.UseContentRoot(pathToContentRoot);
 

 var host = builder.Build(); 

 if (isService)
 {
 host.RunAsService();
 }
 else
 {
 host.Run();
 }
}

This does a couple of things :

  • It checks whether we are using the debugger, or if we have a console argument of “–console” passed in.
  • If neither of the above are true, it sets the content root manually back to where the exe is running. This is specifically for the service runtime.
  • Next if we are a service, we use a special “RunAsService()” method that .NET Core gives us
  • Otherwise we just do a “Run()” as normal.

Obviously the main point of this is that if the debugger is attached (e.g. we are running from visual studio), or we run from a command prompt with the flag “–console”, it’s going to run exactly the same as before. Back in the day we used to have to run the service with a 10 second sleep at the start of the app, and quickly try and attach the debugger to the process before it kicked off to be able to set breakpoints etc. Now it’s just so much easier.

Now let’s actually get this thing installed!

In your project in Visual Studio (Or your favourite editor) add a file called install.bat to your project. The contents of this file should be:

sc create MyService binPath= %~dp0MyService.exe
sc failure MyService actions= restart/60000/restart/60000/""/60000 reset= 86400
sc start MyService
sc config MyService start=auto

Obviously replace MyService with the name of your service, and be sure to rename the exe to the actual name of your applications exe. Leave the %~dp0 part as this refers to the current batch path (Allowing you to just double click the batch file when you want to install).

The install file creates the service, sets up failure restarts (Although these won’t really be needed), starts the service, and sets the service to auto start in the future if the machine reboots for any reason.

Go ahead and create an uninstall.bat file in your project. This should look like:

sc stop MyService
timeout /t 5 /nobreak > NUL
sc delete MyService

Why the timeout? I sometimes found that it took a while to stop the service, and so giving it a little bit of a break inbetween stopping and deleting helped it along it’s way.

Important! For both of these files, be sure to set them up so they copy to the output directory in Visual Studio. Without this, your bat files won’t output to your publish directory.

Go ahead and publish your application again using our command from earlier:

dotnet publish --configuration Release --self-contained -r win10-x64

Now in your publish directory, you will find your install and uninstall bat files. You will need to run both of these as Administrator for them to work as installing Windows Services requires elevated access. A good idea is that the first time you run these, you run them from a command prompt so you can catch any errors that happen.

Once installed, you should be able to browse to http://localhost:5000 and see your website running silently in the background. And again, the best part is when you restart your machine, it starts automatically. Perfect!



European ASP.NET Core Hosting :: Integration Test ASP.NET Core

clock June 25, 2019 09:19 by author Scott

Writing integration tests for ASP.NET Core controller actions used for file uploads is not a rare need. It is fully supported by ASP.NET Core integration tests system. This post shows how to write integration tests for single and multiple file uploads.

Getting started

Suppose we have controller action for file upload that supports multiple files. It uses complex composite command for image file analysis and saving. Command is injected to action by framework-level dependency injection using controller action injection.

[HttpPost]
[Authorize(Roles = "Admin")]
public async Task<IActionResult> Upload(IList<IFormFile> files, int? parentFolderId,
                                        [FromServices]SavePhotoCommand savePhotoCommand)
{
    foreach(var file in files)
    {
        var model = new PhotoEditModel();
        model.FileName = Path.GetFileName(file.FileName);
        model.Thumbnail = Path.GetFileName(file.FileName);
        model.ParentFolderId = parentFolderId;
        model.File = file;
 
        list.AddRange(savePhotoCommand.Validate(model));
 
        await savePhotoCommand.Execute(model);
    }
 
    ViewBag.Messages = savePhotoCommand.Messages;
 
    return View();
}

We want to write integration tests for this action but we need to upload at least one file to make sure that command doesn’t fail.

Making files available for integration tests

It’s good practice to have files for testing available no matter where tests are run. It’s specially true when writing code in team or using continuous integration server to run integration tests. If we don’t have many files and the files are not large then we can include those files in project.

Important thing is to specify in Visual Studio that these files are copied to output folder.

Same way it’s possible to use also other types of files and nobody stops us creating multiple folders or folder trees if we want to organize files better.

Uploading files in integration tests

Here is integration tests class for controller mentioned above. Right now there’s only one test and it is testing Upload action. Notice how image files are loaded from TestPhotos folder to file streams and how form data object is built using the file streams.

public class PhotosControllerTests : IClassFixture<WebApplicationFactory<Startup>>
{
    private readonly WebApplicationFactory<Startup> _factory;
 
    public PhotosControllerTests(WebApplicationFactory<Startup> factory)
    {
        _factory = factory;
    }
 
    [Fact]
    public async Task Upload_SavesPhotoAndReturnSuccess()
    {
        // Arrange
        var expectedContentType = "text/html; charset=utf-8";
        var url = "Photos/Upload";
        var options = new WebApplicationFactoryClientOptions { AllowAutoRedirect = false };
        var client = _factory.CreateClient(options);
 
        // Act
        HttpResponseMessage response;
 
        using (var file1 = File.OpenRead(@"TestPhotos\rt-n66u.jpg.webp"))
        using (var content1 = new StreamContent(file1))
        using (var file2 = File.OpenRead(@"TestPhotos\speedtest.png.webp"))
        using (var content2 = new StreamContent(file2))
        using (var formData = new MultipartFormDataContent())
        {
            // Add file (file, field name, file name)
            formData.Add(content1, "files", "rt-n66u.jpg.webp");
            formData.Add(content2, "files", "speedtest.png.webp");
 
            response = await client.PostAsync(url, formData);
        }
 
        // Assert
        response.EnsureSuccessStatusCode();
        var responseString = await response.Content.ReadAsStringAsync();
 
        Assert.NotEmpty(responseString);
        Assert.Equal(expectedContentType, response.Content.Headers.ContentType.ToString());
 
        response.Dispose();
        client.Dispose();
    }
}

For actions that accept only one file we need only one call to Add() method of formData.

Wrapping up

Integration tests mechanism in ASP.NET Core is flexible enough to support also more advanced scenarios like file uploads in tests. It’s not very straightforward and we can’t just call few methods of HTTP client to do it but it’s still easy enough once we know the tricks. If we keep test files in integration tests project then we don’t have to worry about getting files to machine where integration tests are running.



European ASP.NET Core Hosting - HostForLIFE.eu :: Get Currency Format Using Google In ASP.NET

clock May 21, 2019 11:00 by author Peter

Many times, I have encountered a vital question: "How can I change 20000.00 to $20,000.00?" This involves a simple currency formatter. You can use either jQuery or server-side coding to show the currency in this format. Here, in this post, I will show you how to format the currency input from user in ASP.NET.
Format Currency using jQuery

First, start with jQuery. Google has provided a very simple way to format currency. You can find out about it from here. Or you can follow this.

To continue, you have to download two JavaScript files. One is jquery.formatCurrency-1.4.0.js and the second one is jquery.min.js. I have attached these JS files with the code I have attached along with this post.

So, let's start with sample coding. First, create a new project and add a new page, name it whatever you want. Then, add a new text box. Firstly, we will do it with the onBlur function of jQuery, so we don't need any more extra buttons for showing our formatted currency.

Add those downloaded JS files into your header section of the web form. And then, paste the following code into your page.

JS
    <script src="jquery.min.js"></script> 
    <script src="jquery.formatCurrency-1.4.0.js"></script> 
    <script type="text/javascript"> 
            $(document).ready(function () { 
                $('.text').focusout(function () { 
                    $('.text').formatCurrency(); 
                    $('.text').formatCurrency('.currencyLabel'); 
                }); 
            });        
    </script> 


HTML
    <div> 
         <p>Currency Formatter</p> 
         <asp:TextBox runat="server"  
     
         ID="txtPrice" CssClass="text"></asp:TextBox> 
         Show by Jquery: <span class="currencyLabel"></span> 
    </div> 


Check the CssClass of text box. It's the method by which formatCurrency() method is calling to format it to text box and also show the output value to a span.
Format Currency using C#

I hope it's clear to you how to format currency by jQuery. Now, let's see how to do this using C#. Don't worry, C# has an inbuilt function for this. For C#, we are taking an extra button to display the output into a label.

    <asp:TextBox ID="txtCurrency" runat="server"></asp:TextBox> 
    <asp:Button ID="btnChange" Text="Format" runat="server" OnClick="btnChange_Click"   /> 
    <asp:Label ID="lblShow" runat="server"></asp:Label> 
     
    protected void btnChange_Click(object sender, EventArgs e) 
    { 
        lblShow.Text = (Convert.ToDouble(txtCurrency.Text)).ToString("C2"); 
    } 


Make sure this method is only applicable to data types like decimal and double. So you have to add a check to see whether user input is bound to numbers.

 



European ASP.NET Core Hosting - HostForLIFE.eu :: Dependency Injection For Quartz.NET In .NET Core

clock May 14, 2019 12:18 by author Peter

Quartz.NET is a handy library that allows you to schedule recurring tasks via implementing IJob interface. Yet the limitation of it is that, by default, it supports only a parameterless constructor which complicates injecting external service inside of it, i.e., for implementing repository pattern. In this article, we'll take a look at how we can tackle this problem using standard .NET Core DI container.

The whole project referred to in the article is provided inside the following Github repository. In order to better follow the code in the article, you might want to take a look at it.

Project Overview
Let's take a look at the initial solution structure.

The project QuartzDI.Demo.External.DemoService represents some external dependency we have no control over. For the sake of simplicity, it does quite a humble job.

The project QuartzDI.Demo is our working project which contains simple a Quartz.NET job.
    public class DemoJob : IJob 
    { 
        private const string Url = "https://i.ua"; 
     
        public static IDemoService DemoService { get; set; } 
     
        public Task Execute(IJobExecutionContext context) 
        { 
            DemoService.DoTask(Url); 
            return Task.CompletedTask; 
        } 
    } 


It is set up in a straightforward way:
    var props = new NameValueCollection 
    { 
        { "quartz.serializer.type", "binary" } 
    }; 
    var factory = new StdSchedulerFactory(props); 
    var sched = await factory.GetScheduler(); 
    await sched.Start(); 
    var job = JobBuilder.Create<DemoJob>() 
        .WithIdentity("myJob", "group1") 
        .Build(); 
    var trigger = TriggerBuilder.Create() 
        .WithIdentity("myTrigger", "group1") 
        .StartNow() 
        .WithSimpleSchedule(x => x 
            .WithIntervalInSeconds(5) 
            .RepeatForever()) 
    .Build(); 
    await sched.ScheduleJob(job, trigger); 


We provide our external service via the job's static property.
    DemoJob.DemoService = new DemoService(); 

As the project is a console application, during the course of the article, we'll have to manually install all needed infrastructure and will be able to build a more thorough understanding of what .NET Core actually brings to the table.

At this point, our project is up and running. And what is most important is, it's dead simple, which is great. But we pay for that simplicity with a cost of application inflexibility, which is fine if we want to leave it as a small tool. But that's often not the case for production systems. So let's tweak it a bit to make it more flexible.
Creating a Configuration File

One of the inflexibilities is that we hard-code the URL we call into a DemoJob. Ideally, we would like to change it and also change it depending on our environment. .NET Core comes with an appsettings.json mechanism for that matter.

In order to start working with the .NET Core configuration mechanism, we have to install a couple of NuGet packages.

  • Microsoft.Extensions.Configuration 
  • Microsoft.Extensions.Configuration.FileExtensions 
  • Microsoft.Extensions.Configuration.Json 

Let's create a file with such a name and extract our URL there,
    { 
      "connection": { 
        "Url": "http://i.ua" 
      } 
    } 

Now, we can extract our value from the config file as below.
    var builder = new ConfigurationBuilder() 
                    .SetBasePath(Directory.GetCurrentDirectory()) 
                    .AddJsonFile("appsettings.json", true, true); 
    var configuration = builder.Build(); 
    var connectionSection = configuration.GetSection("connection"); 
    DemoJob.Url = connectionSection["Url"];
 

Note that to make it happen, we had to change the URL from constant to property.
    public static string Url { get; set; } 

Using Constructor Injection

Injecting service via a static property is fine for a simple project, but for a bigger one, it might carry several disadvantages: such as a job might be called without a service provided, thus failing or changing the dependency during the object runtime. To address these issues, we should employ constructor injection.

Although there is nothing wrong with Pure Dependency Injection and some people argue that you should strive for it, in this article, we'll use a built-in .NET Core DI container which comes with a NuGet package Microsoft.Extensions.DependencyInjection.

Now, let us specify a service we depend on inside constructor arguments.
    private readonly IDemoService _demoService; 
    public DemoJob(IDemoService demoService) 
    { 
        _demoService = demoService; 
    } 

In order to invoke a parameterful constructor of the job, Quartz.NET provides IJobFactory interface. Here's our implementation.
    public class DemoJobFactory : IJobFactory 
    { 
        private readonly IServiceProvider _serviceProvider; 
     
        public DemoJobFactory(IServiceProvider serviceProvider) 
        { 
            _serviceProvider = serviceProvider; 
        } 
     
        public IJob NewJob(TriggerFiredBundle bundle, IScheduler scheduler) 
        { 
            return _serviceProvider.GetService<DemoJob>(); 
        } 
     
        public void ReturnJob(IJob job) 
        { 
            var disposable = job as IDisposable; 
            disposable?.Dispose(); 
        } 
    } 


Let's register our dependencies.
    var serviceCollection = new ServiceCollection(); 
    serviceCollection.AddScoped<DemoJob>(); 
    serviceCollection.AddScoped<IDemoService, DemoService>(); 
    var serviceProvider = serviceCollection.BuildServiceProvider(); 


The final piece of the puzzle is to make Quartz.NET use our factory. IScheduler has property JobFactory just for that matter.
    sched.JobFactory = new DemoJobFactory(serviceProvider); 
    Using Options Pattern 


Now, we can pull the same trick with configuration options. Again, our routine starts with a Nuget package. This time Microsoft.Extensions.Options.

Let's create a strongly typed definition for configuration options.
    public class DemoJobOptions 
    { 
        public string Url { get; set; } 
    } 


Now, we populate them as below.
    serviceCollection.AddOptions(); 
    serviceCollection.Configure<DemoJobOptions>(options => 
    { 
        options.Url = connectionSection["Url"]; 
    }); 


And inject them into a constructor. Note that we inject IOptions<T>, not the options instance directly.
    public DemoJob(IDemoService demoService, IOptions<DemoJobOptions> options) 
    { 
        _demoService = demoService; 
        _options = options.Value; 
    } 


Conclusion
In this article, we've seen how we can leverage .NET Core functionality to make our use of Quartz.NET more flexible.

 

 



European ASP.NET Core Hosting :: Alert Dialog From Controller Without JavaScript In View

clock May 9, 2019 12:27 by author Peter
We can show an alert dialog in the browser from Controller without using any JavaScript in the View, which saves our time and makes the popping up of dynamic data way faster.
 
Displaying an Alert Dialog popup can be done from the controller and even from the server-side, but it is very useful when you want to display an alert using much less code.
 
In your Controller, copy the below code just before your return code.

public ActionResult SmartRegister(csUser model)  
 {               
     User us = new User();  
     rfSocietyEntities db = new rfSocietyEntities();  
     if (ModelState.IsValid)  
     {  
         int count = db.Users.Where(a => a.Email.Equals(model.Email)).Count();  
         if (count == 0)  
         {  
             us.Admin = model.Admin;  
             us.Email = model.Email;  
             us.FullName = model.FullName;  
             us.Password = model.Password;  
             us.PhoneNo = model.PhoneNo;  
             db.Users.Add(us);  
             db.SaveChanges();  
             return RedirectToAction("Dashboard""Dashboard");  
         }  
         else  
         {  
             TempData["msg"] = "<script>alert('Email id already registered.');</script>";  
             return View (model);  
         }  
     }  
     else  
     {  
         TempData["msg"] = "<script>alert('Please Check Data entered or try later.');</script>";  
         return View(model);  
     }  
}    
In your View file, add the below code.
  @Html.Raw(TempData["msg"])




European ASP.NET Core Hosting - HostForLIFE.eu :: ASP.NET Core Security Headers

clock April 30, 2019 11:13 by author Peter

With the help of headers, your website could send some useful information to the browser. Let’s see how it is possible to add more protection to your website.
To add a header for each request, we can use middleware.

XSS and CSP
Still in the OWASP top 10, there is XSS - Cross-Site Scripting attack. Sure, it helps a lot to encode symbols before displaying text on the website (using any one of the HtmlEncoder, JavaScriptEncoder, and UrlEncoder). And, it’s better never to use @Html.Raw(). But it is also possible to add a header that will inform the browser to stop XSS attack. This kind of header is useful mostly for old browsers.
app.Use(async (context, next) =>  
{  
context.Response.Headers.Add("X-Xss-Protection", "1");  
await next();  
}); 


For new browsers, it is better to use CSP. Here is how it is possible to add the CSP header.
app.Use(async (context, next) =>  
{  
context.Response.Headers.Add(  
  "Content-Security-Policy",  
  "default-src 'self'; " +  
  "img-src 'self' myblobacc.blob.core.windows.net; " +  
  "font-src 'self'; " +  
  "style-src 'self'; " +  
  "script-src 'self' 'nonce-KIBdfgEKjb34ueiw567bfkshbvfi4KhtIUE3IWF' "+  
  " 'nonce-rewgljnOIBU3iu2btli4tbllwwe'; " +  
  "frame-src 'self';"+  
  "connect-src 'self';");  
await next();  
});  


In this example, it is allowed to run scripts.js files only from the current website (that is a meaning of ‘self’). And it is allowed to run 2 specified with “nonce” attribute scripts that are inserted in page inside script tag. For example, if you are using some script like this one inside your page.
<script>  
function showMessage() {  
alert("Just for demo");  
}   
</script>  

Then, you will be not able to run this script without adding ‘unsafe-inline’ into your CSP definition.

But adding ‘unsafe-inline’ means leaving your website not-protected. So, better move the script into .js file or use a nonce. Just add to your script attribute nonce with some random value. For example,
<script nonce="KUY8VewuvyUYVEIvEFue4vwyiuf"> </script>  

Then, you can add to your CSP script-scr value ‘nonce-KUY8VewuvyUYVEIvEFue4vwyiuf’ and you will be able to run scripts from exactly this <script> section.

‘unsafe-inlne’ is also related to events that are added to your html as attributes. Like onclick, onchange, onkeydown, onfocus. For example, instead of the following onclick event, you should add id or class to your element and call event from <script> or .js file.
<p onclick="showMessage()">Show message</p>  

Like this,
<p id="message-text">Show message</p>  

<script nonce=”KUY8VewuvyUYVEIvEFue4vwyiuf”>  
$(document).ready(function() {  
$("#message-text") (function() {  
alert( "Just for demo" );  
});   
});  
</script>  


X-Frame-Options
By default, it is possible to display your website inside an iframe. But with one small header, it is possible to disallow this. Why? Because someone could display your website inside a frame and place a transparent layer over it. And, the users would be thinking that they are clicking on your website buttons/links but in a real case, they would be clicking on items placed in the transparent layer. And as cookies still could be in the user’s browser, some operation could be authenticated. This kind of attack is called Clickjacking. And, here is a header to protect your website from this attack.
context.Response.Headers.Add("X-Frame-Options", "DENY");  

Content sniffing
By the next link File Upload XSS you can find a more or less fresh sample of how it is possible to inject JavaScript into an svg file. And if a file like this would be located on the server that would have content sniffing security enabled, then JavaScript wouldn’t work because svg extension doesn’t correspond to JS content. Hope you believe me now that the next header is required.
context.Response.Headers.Add("X-Content-Type-Options", "nosniff");  

Referrer-Policy
One of the headers that is automatically added by browsers is “Referer”. It contains a site from which the user has been transferred. Sometimes, that is convenient for analytics. But sometimes, the URL could contain some private information that is better not to be disclosed.

If you don’t want to allow browsers to display your website as last visited in “Referer” header, please use the Referrer-Policy: no-referrer

Here is an example of all headers in one middleware.
app.Use(async (context, next) =>  
{  
context.Response.Headers.Add("X-Xss-Protection", "1");  
context.Response.Headers.Add("X-Frame-Options", "DENY");  
context.Response.Headers.Add("Referrer-Policy", "no-referrer");  
context.Response.Headers.Add("X-Content-Type-Options", "nosniff");  
              context.Response.Headers.Add(  
  "Content-Security-Policy",  
  "default-src 'self'; " +  
  "img-src 'self' myblobacc.blob.core.windows.net; " +  
  "font-src 'self'; " +  
  "style-src 'self'; " +  
  "script-src 'self' 'nonce-KIBdfgEKjb34ueiw567bfkshbvfi4KhtIUE3IWF' "+  
  " 'nonce-rewgljnOIBU3iu2btli4tbllwwe'; " +  
  "frame-src 'self';"+  
  "connect-src 'self';");  
await next();  
});  


Sure, you can read information about each one header and change value to something more appropriate for your needs.
Strict-Transport-Security

For activating Strict-Transport-Security - web security policy mechanism that helps to protect your website from protocol downgrade attacks and cookie hijacking, add the next one to your middleware pipeline (or just don’t remove it),
app.UseHsts();  

This middleware will add “Strict-Transport-Security” header

Removing Server Header
Sometimes, headers could provide some information that is better to hide. To disable the Server header from Kestrel, you need to set AddServerHeader to false. Use UseKestrel() if your ASP.NET Core version is  lower than 2.2 and ConfigureKestrel() if not.
WebHost.CreateDefaultBuilder(args)  
     .UseKestrel(c => c.AddServerHeader = false)  
     .UseStartup<Startup>()  
     .Build();



European ASP.NET Core Hosting :: Create A Typed HttpClient With

clock April 23, 2019 10:57 by author Peter

HttpClient is used for sending HTTP requests and receiving HTTP responses from a resource identified by a URI. But, HttpClient has some issues. To read more on the issues of HttpClient, you can check this link. In the .NET Core 2.1 release, Microsoft has introduced a new way of designing HttpClients to solve these issues, and it's called HttpClientFactory. HttpClientFactory is an opinionated factory, available since .NET Core 2.1, for creating HttpClient instances in our applications. This means that we can create HttpClients and can register them in the HttpClientFactory in our application and can leverage the dependency injection capabilities of the .NET core to inject these HttpClients in our code. HttpClientFactory allows us to no longer care about the lifecycle of the HttpClient by leaving it to the framework.
 
There are three ways to use HttpClientFactory to instantiate HttpClients.

  • Default client
  • Named client
  • Typed client

In order to use the factory, we need to register it in the DI container. So, we need to use an extension method AddHttpClient() on IServiceCollection interface in our Startup.cs class. This will allow us to inject the HttpClient in our class constructors.
 
In this article, we will see how to create a Typed HttpClient using the HttpClient factory in a .NET core MVC application and use it for making HTTP calls. I prefer Typed HttpClient over the other two because,

    As the name suggests, typed clients provide type safety.
    Typed clients help in encapsulating the API calls when we are making use of the HttpClient at one place, thus making our code DRY (Don't Repeat Yourself). The other two will scatter the implementation details of making HTTP calls throughout the codebase.

We will make a simple MVC application to learn the workings of typed HttpClient. This application will receive the name of a movie and call a REST API to fetch the details of that movie and shall display it to the user. I will be using Visual Studio Code for developing the application. The REST API used for fetching the movie details is the OMDB API. The OMDB API is a RESTful web service to obtain movie information. This is a free API with a 1000 requests per day limit for a user. We need an API key for accessing this API. To know more details about this API you can check their website.

Create a folder called MovieFinder and open it in VS Code. Create an MVC application by running the following command in the terminal.
    dotnet new mvc --name MovieFinder 

This shall create a basic .NET Core MVC application. Now, let’s create a View Model class to hold the data from the OMDB API. So, let’s add a class named MovieDetailModel.
    public class MovieDetailModel 
    { 
        public string Title { get; set; } 
        public string Year { get; set; } 
        public string Director { get; set; } 
        public string Actors { get; set; } 
        public string IMDBRating { get; set; } 
        public string PosterImage { get; set; } 
        public string Plot { get; set; } 
    } 


Now, we need to create an interface for our typed client. Let's name it IMovieDetailsClient.
    public interface IMovieDetailsClient 
    { 
        Task<MovieDetailModel> GetMovieDetailsAsync(string movieName); 
    } 


This interface contains a single method, GetMovieDetailsAsync, which accepts the movie name as the parameter and shall return the details of that movie. Now we need to create a class which implements this interface. This class shall contain the actual logic of calling the OMDB API to fetch the movie details.
    public class MovieDetailsClient : IMovieDetailsClient 
    { 
        private readonly HttpClient _httpClient; 
     
        public MovieDetailsClient(HttpClient httpClient) 
        { 
            httpClient.BaseAddress = new Uri("http://www.omdbapi.com/"); 
            _httpClient = httpClient; 
        } 
     
        public async Task<MovieDetailModel> GetMovieDetailsAsync(string movieName) 
        { 
            var queryString = $"?t={movieName}&apikey=<your-api-key>"; 
            var response = await _httpClient.GetStringAsync(queryString); 
     
            JObject json = JObject.Parse(response); 
     
            if (json.SelectToken("Response").Value<string>() == "True") 
            { 
     
                var movieDetails = new MovieDetailModel 
                { 
                    Title = json.SelectToken("Title").Value<string>(), 
                    Year = json.SelectToken("Year").Value<string>(), 
                    Director = json.SelectToken("Director").Value<string>(), 
                    Actors = json.SelectToken("Actors").Value<string>(), 
                    IMDBRating = json.SelectToken("imdbRating").Value<string>(), 
                    PosterImage = json.SelectToken("Poster").Value<string>(), 
                    Plot = json.SelectToken("Plot").Value<string>() 
                }; 
     
                return movieDetails; 
            } 
     
            return new MovieDetailModel 
            { 
                Title = movieName 
            }; 
        } 
    } 


In this class, we inject the HttpClient in our class constructor and set the base address of our OMDB API endpoint. We also implement GetMovieDetailsAsync method declared in our interface. We called the OMDB API from our method and mapped the API response to our view model and returned it. I have used the JSON.NET library for parsing the response from the API.
Note that I have hardcoded the API Base address and the API key in the code. This is not a healthy practice. We shall always prefer moving these kinds of values to configuration files and shall read those values from the configuration files in our code.
 
We have now created our typed client. Now let's create the view for user interaction. In the Index.cshtml file in the Views\Home folder, replace the existing code with the following code.
    @{ 
        ViewData["Title"] = "Home Page"; 
    } 
     
    @model MovieDetailModel 
     
    <form  
        asp-controller="Home"  
        asp-action="Submit" 
        method="post"  
        class="form-horizontal"  
        role="form"> 
     
        <div class="form-group"> 
            <label for="Title">Title</label> 
            <input  
                class="form-control"  
                placeholder="Enter Title" 
                asp-for="Title">    
        </div> 
        <button type="submit" class="btn btn-primary">Submit</button> 
    </form> 
     
     
    @{ 
        <br> 
         
        if(!string.IsNullOrEmpty(Model?.Year)) 
        { 
            var title = Model.Title; 
            var year = Model.Year;   
            var message = $"{title} is release on {year}";  
      
            <br> 
            <div class="card" style="width: 18rem;"> 
                <img class="card-img-top" src=@Model.PosterImage alt="Poster Not Available"> 
                <div class="card-body"> 
                    <h5 class="card-title">@Model.Title (@Model.Year)</h5> 
                    <p class="card-text">@Model.Plot</p>               
                </div> 
                <ul class="list-group list-group-flush"> 
                    <li class="list-group-item"><strong>Director : @Model.Director</strong></li> 
                    <li class="list-group-item"><strong>Actors : @Model.Actors</strong></li> 
                    <li class="list-group-item"><strong>Rating : @Model.IMDBRating</strong></li> 
                </ul> 
            </div>      
        } 
         
        if(Model != null && string.IsNullOrEmpty(Model?.Year)) 
        { 
            <div class="alert alert-danger" role="alert"> 
                <strong>Sorry!! Requested Movie Details are not available..</strong>  
            </div> 
        } 
    } 


Now, we need to add the Controller code for accepting the movie name from the view and for displaying the movie details. For that, we need to inject the typed client we had created into the constructor of our controller. So, we need to register this typed client with the HttpClient factory in our Startup.cs class. Add the following code in the ConfigureServices method in the startup class.
    services.AddHttpClient<IMovieDetailsClient, MovieDetailsClient>(); 

Now, let's add our controller methods. In the HomeController make the changes as below.
    public class HomeController : Controller 
    { 
        private readonly IMovieDetailsClient _movieDetailsClient; 
     
        public HomeController(IMovieDetailsClient movieDetailsClient) 
        { 
            _movieDetailsClient = movieDetailsClient; 
        } 
     
        public IActionResult Index() 
        { 
            return View(); 
        } 
     
        [HttpPost] 
        public async Task<IActionResult> Submit(MovieDetailModel model) 
        { 
            var movieDetail = await _movieDetailsClient.GetMovieDetailsAsync(model.Title); 
            return View("Index", movieDetail); 
        }       
    } 


We are injecting our IMovieDetails client in the constructor of our controller and assigning it to a read-only field _movieDetailsClient. We have also defined an action named Submit which takes the title of the movie from the view as a parameter. This method makes use of our typed HttpClient to fetch the details of that movie and shall return the view with the details of that movie.

Now, run the application. Execute the command dotnet run in the terminal. Open a browser and navigate to https://localhost:5001/.

 



European ASP.NET Core Hosting - HostForLIFE.eu :: Javascript, CSS, HTML in ASP.NET Core

clock April 12, 2019 09:45 by author Scott

This article will teach you how to include and customize the use of static files in ASP .NET Core web applications. It is not a tutorial on front-end web development.

If your ASP .NET Core web app has a front end – whether it’s a collection of MVC Views or a Single-Page Application (SPA) – you will need to include static files in your application. This includes (but is not limited to): JavaScript, CSS, HTML and various image files.

When you create a new web app using one of the built-in templates (MVC or Razor Pages), you should see a “wwwroot” folder in the Solution Explorer. This points to a physical folder in your file system that contains the same files seen from Visual Studio. However, this location can be configured, you can have multiple locations with static files, and you can enable/disable static files in your application if desired. In fact, you have to “opt in” to static files in your middleware pipeline.

Configuring Static Files via Middleware

Let’s start by observing the Startup.cs configuration file. We’ve seen this file several times throughout this blog series. In the Configure() method, you’ll find the familiar method call to enable the use of static files.

public void Configure(IApplicationBuilder app, IHostingEnvironment env)
{
   ...
   app.UseStaticFiles();
   ...
   app.UseMvc(...);
}

This call to app.UseStaticFiles() ensures that static files can be served from the designated location, e.g. wwwroot.

It’s useful to note the placement of this line of code. It appears before app.UseMvc(), which is very important. This ensures that static file requests can be processed and sent back to the web browser without having to touch the MVC middleware. This becomes even more important when authentication is used.

In the code below, you can see the familiar call to app.UseStaticFiles() once again. However, there is also a call to app.UseAuthentication(). It’s important for the authentication call to appear after the call to use static files. This ensure that the authentication process isn’t triggered when it isn’t needed.

public void Configure(IApplicationBuilder app, IHostingEnvironment env)
{
   ...
   app.UseStaticFiles();
   ...
   app.UseAuthentication();
   ...
   app.UseMvc(...);
}

By using the middleware pipeline in this way, you can “short-circuit” the pipeline when a request has been fulfilled by a specific middleware layer. If a static file has been successfully served using the Static Files middleware, it prevents the next layers of middleware (i.e. authentication, MVC) from processing the request.

Customizing Locations for Static Files

It may be convenient to have the default web templates create a location for your static files and also enable the use of those static files. As you’ve already seen, enabling static files isn’t magic. Removing the call to app.useStaticFiles() will disable static files from being served. In fact, the location for static files isn’t magic either.

public class Program
{
   ...
   public static IWebHostBuilder CreateWebHostBuilder(string[] args) =>
      WebHost.CreateDefaultBuilder(args)
         .UseStartup<Startup>();
}

Behind the scenes, this method call sets the “content root” to the current directory, which contains the “wwwroot” folder, your project’s “web root”. These can both be customized.

WebHost.CreateDefaultBuilder(args).UseContentRoot("c:\\<content-root>")

WebHost.CreateDefaultBuilder(args).UseWebRoot("public")

You may also use the call to app.UseStaticFiles() to customize an alternate location to serve static files. This allows you to serve additional static files from a location outside of the designated web root.

...
using Microsoft.Extensions.FileProviders;
using System.IO;
...
public void Configure(IApplicationBuilder app)
{
   ...
   app.UseStaticFiles(new StaticFileOptions
   {
      FileProvider = new PhysicalFileProvider
         Path.Combine(env.ContentRootPath, "AltStaticRoot")),
         RequestPath = "/AltStaticFiles"
   });
}

Wait a minute… why does it look like there are two alternate locations for static files? There is a simple explanation:

  • In the call to Path.Combine(), the “AltStaticRoot” is an actual folder in your current directory. This Path class and its Combine() method are available in the System.IO namespace.
  • The “AltStaticFiles” value for RequestPath is used as a root-level “virtual folder” from which images can be served. The PhysicalFileProvider class is available in the Microsoft.Extensions.FileProviders namespace.

The following markup may be used in a .cshtml file to refer to an image, e.g. MyImage01.png:

<img src="~/AltStaticFiles/MyImages/MyImage01.png" />

The screenshot below shows an example of an image loaded from an alternate location.

The screenshot below shows a web browser displaying such an image.

Preserving CDN Integrity

When you use a CDN (Content Delivery Network) to serve common CSS and JS files, you need to ensure that the integrity of the source code is reliable. You can rest assured that ASP .NET Core has already solved this problem for you in its built-in templates.

<environment include="Development">
 <link rel="stylesheet" href="~/lib/bootstrap/dist/css/bootstrap.css" />
</environment>

<environment exclude="Development">
 <link
   rel="stylesheet"
   href=
https://cdnjs.cloudflare.com/ajax/libs/twitter-bootstrap/4.1.3/css/bootstrap.min.css
   asp-fallback-href="~/lib/bootstrap/dist/css/bootstrap.min.css"
   asp-fallback-test-class="sr-only"
   asp-fallback-test-property="position"
   asp-fallback-test-value="absolute"
   crossorigin="anonymous"
   integrity="sha256-eSi1q2PG6J7g7ib17yAaWMcrr5GrtohYChqibrV7PBE="/>
</environment>

Right away, you’ll notice that there are two conditional <environment> blocks in the above markup. The first block is used only during development, in which the bootstrap CSS file is obtained from your local copy. When not in development (e.g. staging, production, etc), the bootstrap CSS file is obtained from a CDN, e.g. CloudFlare.

You could use an automated hash-generation tool to generate the SRI (Subresource Integrity) hash values, but you would have to manually copy the value into your code. You can try out the relatively-new LibMan (aka Library Manager) for easily adding and updating your client-side libraries.

LibMan (aka Library Manager)

The easiest way to use LibMan is to use the built-in features available in Visual Studio. Using LibMan using the IDE is as easy as launching it from Solution Explorer. Specify the provider from the library you want, and any specific files you want from that library.

In the popup that appears, select/enter the following:

  • Provider: choose from cdnjs, filesystem, unpkg
  • Library search term, e.g. @aspnet/signalr@1… pick latest stable if desired
  • Files: At a minimum, choose specific files, e.g. signalr.js and/or its minified equivalent

 

For more on LibMan (using VS or CLI), check out the official docs:

Use LibMan with ASP.NET Core in Visual Studio: https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/aspnet/core/client-side/libman/libman-vs

Use the LibMan command-line interface (CLI): https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/aspnet/core/client-side/libman/libman-cli

Library Manager: Client-side content manager for web apps: https://devblogs.microsoft.com/aspnet/library-manager-client-side-content-manager-for-web-apps/

In any case, using LibMan will auto-populate a “libman.json” manifest file, which you can also inspect and edit manually.

{
  "version": "1.0",
  "defaultProvider": "unpkg",
  "libraries": [
    {
      "library": "@aspnet/signalr@1.1.0",
      "destination": "wwwroot/lib/signalr/",
      "files": [
        "dist/browser/signalr.js",
        "dist/browser/signalr.min.js"
      ]
    }
  ]
}

What About NPM or WebPack?

If you’ve gotten this far, you may be wondering: “hey, what about NPM or WebPack?”

It’s good to be aware that LibMan is a not a replacement for your existing package management systems. In fact, the Single-Page Application templates in Visual Studio (for Angular and React) currently use npm and WebPack. LibMan simply provides a lightweight mechanism to include client-side libraries from external location.

 



About HostForLIFE.eu

HostForLIFE.eu is European Windows Hosting Provider which focuses on Windows Platform only. We deliver on-demand hosting solutions including Shared hosting, Reseller Hosting, Cloud Hosting, Dedicated Servers, and IT as a Service for companies of all sizes.

We have offered the latest Windows 2016 Hosting, ASP.NET Core 2.2.1 Hosting, ASP.NET MVC 6 Hosting and SQL 2017 Hosting.


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