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European ASP.NET Core Hosting - HostForLIFE.eu :: Using The IComparable And IComparer Interface In C#

clock May 19, 2020 07:54 by author Peter

One of the most used functionalities in our C# classes is the ability to sort the different instances of a class. This is mostly done when we create a generic List of our class type and next, we want to sort our class based on some condition. Today, we will see how this is done in our C# classes

Creating the Class

We will create a .NET core console application using Visual Studio 2019 Community edition as below,

Next, we create a Student Class inside the “Program.cs” file as below,
  public class Student : IComparable<Student> 
  { 
   
      public int ID { get; set; } 
      public string Name { get; set; } 
      public string Program { get; set; } 
      public int Year { get; set; } 
      public float GPA { get; set; } 
   
      public int CompareTo(Student otherItem) 
      { 
          var status = (this.GPA > otherItem.GPA) ? 1 : ((this.GPA == otherItem.GPA) ? 0 : -1);  
          return status; 
      } 
  } 


Let us look at the code in detail. To make the class sortable we need to implement the IComparable<T> interface. In this interface we need to code the “CompareTo” function. In this function another instance of the same class is passed in and then we compare the two to order them. We base this on the GPA field and hence when we sort a List<Student> list, we will get the class items sorted by GPA in ascending order. Note that if the return value is zero, this means that the classes are equal in sort order, if the return value is 1 (positive number), then the current class is higher in the sort and if the value is -1 (negative number) then the input class is higher in the sort order.

To test this out, we write the following code in the Main function as below,
  class Program 
      { 
          static void Main(string[] args) 
          { 
   
              var students = new List<Student>(); 
   
              var studentA = new Student() { ID = 1, Name = "John Doe", Program = "BCS", Year = 2020, GPA = 2.75F }; 
              var studentB = new Student() { ID = 1, Name = "Jane Doe", Program = "BCS", Year = 2020, GPA = 3.4F }; 
              var studentC = new Student() { ID = 1, Name = "Mary Jane", Program = "BCS", Year = 2020, GPA = 2.71F }; 
   
              students.Add(studentA); 
              students.Add(studentB); 
              students.Add(studentC); 
   
              Console.WriteLine($"Items not in any order"); 
              foreach(var student in students) 
              { 
                  Console.WriteLine($"Student ID: {student.ID}, Name: {student.Name}, GPA: {student.GPA}"); 
              } 
   
              Console.WriteLine(); 
   
              students.Sort(); 
   
              Console.WriteLine($"Items in ascending order"); 
              foreach (var student in students) 
              { 
                  Console.WriteLine($"Student ID: {student.ID}, Name: {student.Name}, GPA: {student.GPA}"); 
              } 
   
              Console.WriteLine(); 
   
              students.Sort(new DescendingComparer()); 
   
              Console.WriteLine($"Items in descending order"); 
              foreach (var student in students) 
              { 
                  Console.WriteLine($"Student ID: {student.ID}, Name: {student.Name}, GPA: {student.GPA}"); 
              } 
   
              Console.ReadKey(); 
          } 
      } 
   
      public class DescendingComparer : IComparer<Student> 
      { 
          public int Compare(Student a, Student b) 
          { 
              var status = (a.GPA > b.GPA) ? -1 : ((a.GPA == b.GPA) ? 0 : 1); 
              return status; 
          } 
      } 


In the first case, we print the list of student classes as entered in the list. Then, we sort the list which will list the students in ascending order based on the GPA field. Finally, if we want to reverse the order and sort the student classes in descending order by GPA field we create a new DescendingComparer class which implements the IComparer<Student> interface and sort the records in the reverse order of what we did before.



European ASP.NET Core Hosting - HostForLIFE.eu :: Action Result in ASP.NET Core API

clock May 5, 2020 10:12 by author Peter

This article overview action result which are used in ASP.NET Core and Core API. We will understand both, which are available in two different assemblies of ASP.NET Core Microsoft.AspNetCore.Mvc and System.Web.Http.

ObjectResult
ObjectResult primary role is content negotiation. It has some variation of a method called SelectFormatter on its ObjectResultExecutor. You can return an object with it, and it formats the response based on what the user requested in the Accept header. If the header didn’t exist, it returns the default format configured for the app. It’s important to note that if the request is issued through a browser, the Accept header will be ignored, unless we set the RespectBrowserAcceptHeader to true when we configure the MVC options in Startup.cs. Also, it doesn’t set the status code, which causes the status code to be null. ObjectResult is the super type of following:

AcceptedResult

AcceptedAtActionResult
AcceptedAtRouteResult
BadRequestObjectResult
CreatedResult
CreatedAtActionResult
CreatedAtRouteResult
NotFoundObjectResult
OkObjectResult

AcceptedResult

An AcceptedResultthat returns an Accepted (202) response with a Location header. It indicates that the request is successfully accepted for processing, but it might or might not acted upon. In this case, we should redirect the user to a location that provides some kind of monitor on the current state of the process. For this purpose, we pass a URI.
public AcceptedResult AcceptedActionResult() 
    { 
        return Accepted(new Uri("/Home/Index", UriKind.Relative), new { FirstName = "Peter",LastName="Scott" }); 
    } 


AcceptedAtActionResult
An AcceptedAtActionResult action result returns an accepted 202 response with a location header.
public AcceptedAtActionResult AcceptedAtActionActionResult() 

return AcceptedAtAction("IndexWithId", "Home", new { Id = 2, area = "" }, new { FirstName = "Peter",LastName="Scott" }); 


AcceptedAtRouteResult
An AcceptedAtRouteResult returns an Accepted (202) response with a Location header. It's the same as AcceptedResult, with the only difference being that it takes a route name and route value instead of URI.
public AcceptedAtRouteResult AcceptedAtRouteActionResult() 

return AcceptedAtRoute("default", new { Id = 2, area = "" }, new { FirstName = "Peter", LastName = "Scott" }); 


BadRequestResult
An ObjectResult, when executed. will produce a Bad Request (400) response. It indicates a bad request by user. It does not take any argument.
public BadRequestResult BadRequestActionResult() 

  return BadRequest(); 


BadRequestObjectResult
This is similar to BadRequestResult, with the difference that it can pass an object or a ModelStateDictionary containing the details regarding the error.
public BadRequestObjectResult BadRequestObjectActionResult() 

        var modelState = new ModelStateDictionary(); 
        modelState.AddModelError("Name", "Name is required."); 
        return BadRequest(modelState); 


CreatedResult

CreatedResult returns a Created (201) response with a Location header. This indicates the request has been fulfilled and has resulted in one or more new resources being created.
public CreatedResult CreatedActionResult() 
    { 
        return Created(new Uri("/Home/Index", UriKind.Relative), new { FirstName = "Peter", LastName = "Scott" }); 
    } 


CreatedAtActionResult
CreatedAtActionResult that returns a Created (201) response with a Location header.
public CreatedAtActionResult CreatedAtActionActionResult() 
    { 
        return CreatedAtAction("IndexWithId", "Home", new { id = 2, area = "" }, new { FirstName = "Peter", LastName = "Scott" }); 
    } 


CreatedAtRouteResult
CreatedAtRouteResult that returns a Created (201) response with a Location header.
public CreatedAtRouteResult CreatedAtRouteActionResult() 
    { 
        return CreatedAtRoute("default", new { Id = 2, area = "" }, new { FirstName = "Peter", LastName = "Scott" }); 
    } 


NotFoundResult
This represents a StatusCodeResult that when executed, will produce a Not Found (404) response.
public NotFoundResult NotFoundActionResult() 
    { 
        return NotFound(); 
    } 

NotFoundObjectResult
This is similar to NotFoundResult, with the difference being that you can pass an object with the 404 response.
public NotFoundObjectResult NotFoundObjectActionResult() 
    { 
        return NotFound(new { Id = 1, error = "There was no customer with an id of 1." }); 
    } 


OkResult
This is a StatusCodeResult. When executed, it will produce an empty Status200OK response.
public OkResult OkEmptyWithoutObject() 

return Ok(); 


OkObjectResult

An ObjectResult, when executed, performs content negotiation, formats the entity body, and will produce a Status200OK response if negotiation and formatting succeed.
public OkObjectResult OkObjectResult() 
    { 
        return new OkObjectResult(new { Message="Hello World !"}); 
    } 


NoContentResult

The action result returns 204 status code. It’s different from EmptyResult in that EmptyResult returns an empty 200 status code, but NoContentResult returns 204. Use EmptyResult in normal controllers and NoContentResult in API controllers.
public NoContentResult NoContentActionResult() 
    { 
        return NoContent(); 
    } 


StatusCodeResult

StatusCodeResult accepts a status code number and sets that status code for the current request. One thing to point is that you can return an ObjectResult with and status code and object. There is a method on ControllerBase called StatusCode (404, new {Name = "Peter Scott”}), which can take a status code and an object and return an ObjectResult.
public StatusCodeResult StatusCodeActionResult() 
    { 
        return StatusCode(404); 
    } 



European ASP.NET Core Hosting - HostForLIFE.eu :: Dependency Injection in ASP.NET Core

clock April 28, 2020 08:21 by author Peter

Dependency injection is a software design pattern that enables users to create an application with loosely coupled code. The term 'loosely coupled' means objects that should only have as many dependencies as required to complete their job by decreasing the tight coupling between the software components. Object's dependencies should be on interfaces as opposed to the concrete object. An object is concrete in the sense that it is created with the "new" keyword.

Advantages of Dependency Injection
Easier Maintainability
Greater re-usability

Code is more easily testable with different mock implementation.

Code is cleaner and more readable

There are basically 3 types of Dependency injection in ASP.NET Core:

  • Constructor Injection
  • Method Injection
  • Property Injection

Constructor Injection
Constructor injection is the most common dependency injection used in an application. Constructor injection uses parameters to inject the dependency. It accepts the dependency at the constructor level. It means when instantiating the class, their dependency pass through the constructor of the class.

Implementing Constructor Injection

In the below code, HomeController has a dependency on IEmployeeRepository. We are not creating an object of EmployeeRepository using the new Keyword but we are injecting IEmployeeRepository in Home Controller class using its constructor. This is called constructor injection.
using DependencyInjectionTech.Models; 
using Microsoft.AspNetCore.Mvc; 
namespace DependencyInjectionTech.Controllers { 
    [Route("api/[controller]")] 
    [ApiController] 
    public class HomeController: ControllerBase { 
        private IEmployeeRepository _employeeRepository; 
        // Constructor Injection 
        public HomeController(IEmployeeRepository employeeRepository) { 
                _employeeRepository = employeeRepository; 
            } 
            [HttpGet] 
            [Produces("application/json")] 
        public Employee GetEmployee() { 
            return _employeeRepository.GetEmployee(1); 
        } 
    } 


While running the application, we will get the below error because we have to manually register the interface IEmployeeRepository and its implementation class in the Asp.Net Core dependency injection container. Unless we won't do that process, we will get the below error:

An unhandled exception occurred while processing the request.

InvalidOperationException: Unable to resolve service for type 'DependencyInjectionTech.Models.IEmployeeRepository' while attempting to activate 'DependencyInjectionTech.Controllers.HomeController'.

For registering the interface and its implementation, we have a startup class where we configure the service methods. We make use of the ConfigureServices method to configure the required service for our application. We can use this method to configure in both the ASP.NET Framework Service as well as our application-related custom service. We can make use of the incoming parameter type IServiceCollection of the Configure service method to configure the service.

There are basically 3 methods to register our custom service in the configure service method:
Add Singleton
Add Transient
Add Scoped

The below code in the startup file indicates if any controller (for example HomeController) requests IEmployeeRepository. Then it will automatically create an instance of MockEmployeeRepository class and then inject the instance.
// This method gets called by the runtime. Use this method to add services to the container. 
public void ConfigureServices(IServiceCollection services) { 
    services.AddMvc().SetCompatibilityVersion(CompatibilityVersion.Version_2_1); 
    //Registering the interface and its implementation in asp.net core dependency injection container. 
    services.AddSingleton < IEmployeeRepository, MockEmployeeRepository > (); 


Method Injection
Method Injection enables you to inject the dependency into a single method to be only used by that method. We make use of the [FromService] attribute for the method Injection.

Implementing the Method Injection

In the below code, we are implementing the method injection in a single method.
namespace DependencyInjectionTech.Controllers { 
    [Route("api/[controller]")] 
    [ApiController] 
    public class HomeController: ControllerBase { 
        public HomeController() {} 
        //Method Injection 
        [HttpGet] 
        [Produces("application/json")] 
        public Employee GetEmployee([FromServices] IEmployeeRepository _employeeRepository) { 
            return _employeeRepository.GetEmployee(1); 
        } 
    } 
}



European ASP.NET Core Hosting - HostForLIFE.eu :: Flyweight Design Pattern

clock April 21, 2020 07:46 by author Peter

In this post, we will talk about Flyweight design pattern. We will see when one should use this design pattern and how we can implement it. In the below example, we will use C# language to implement the example.

In early days of computing, memory was very costly, but nowadays, it's getting cheaper on a daily basis. Usually, in software application, memory is needed to create and hold objects. Sometimes, some objects stay in memory for a longer period of time. It's the developer’s responsibility to remove the object from memory whenever it's not needed to save memory. Another way to save memory is to use a created object instead of creating a new object each time. This will definitely save memory and improve the performance of the application.
 
To achieve this, we should have a pool of objects where we will keep all newly created objects. Whenever we need the same object, we will query to pool and get that object. After query, if the needed object doesn’t exist in the pool, we will create new one and store it in the pool. In a higher language like C# or Java, we can use Dictionary<Key,Value> or HashTable<Key,Value> to create a pool.
 
Example

Let's add new project. You can give any name you want to it.
Lets create a contract called “IShape” which will be implemented by different shapes.
    internal interface IShape 
        { 
            void Print(); 
        } 


Lets add a “Rectangle” shape.
    internal class Rectangle : IShape 
        { 
            public void Print() 
            { 
                Console.WriteLine("Printing Rectangle"); 
            } 
        } 


Lets add a “Circle” shape.
    internal class Circle : IShape 
        { 
            public void Print() 
            { 
                Console.WriteLine("Printing Circle"); 
            } 
        } 


Lets add “Shapes” enum.
    public enum Shapes 
        { 
            Rectangle, 
            Circle 
        } 


Here's a factory class which will hold all objects in dictionary (hashtable). If the requested object doesn't exist in this list, then it will create it, or else it will return the already created one.
internal class ShapeObjectFactory 

    private readonly Dictionary<Shapes, IShape> shapes = new Dictionary<Shapes, IShape>(); 

    public int TotalObjectsCreated 
    { 
        get { return shapes.Count; } 
    } 

    public IShape GetShape(Shapes shapeType) 
    { 
        IShape shape = null; 
        if (shapes.ContainsKey(shapeType)) 
        { 
            shape = shapes[shapeType]; 
        } 
        else 
        { 
            switch (shapeType) 
            { 
                case Shapes.Rectangle: 
                    shape = new Rectangle(); 
                    shapes.Add(Shapes.Rectangle, shape); 
                    break; 

                case Shapes.Circle: 
                    shape = new Circle(); 
                    shapes.Add(Shapes.Circle, shape); 
                    break; 

                default: 
                    throw new Exception("Factory cannot create the object specified"); 
            } 
        } 
        return shape; 
    } 


Client program
internal class Program 

    private static void Main(string[] args) 
    { 
        var factoryObject = new ShapeObjectFactory(); 

        IShape shape = factoryObject.GetShape(Shapes.Rectangle); 
        shape.Print(); 
        shape = factoryObject.GetShape(Shapes.Rectangle); 
        shape.Print(); 
        shape = factoryObject.GetShape(Shapes.Rectangle); 
        shape.Print(); 

        shape = factoryObject.GetShape(Shapes.Circle); 
        shape.Print(); 
        shape = factoryObject.GetShape(Shapes.Circle); 
        shape.Print(); 
        shape = factoryObject.GetShape(Shapes.Circle); 
        shape.Print(); 

        int NumObjs = factoryObject.TotalObjectsCreated; 
        Console.WriteLine("\nTotal No of Objects created = {0}", NumObjs); 
        Console.ReadKey(); 
    } 



European ASP.NET Core Hosting - HostForLIFE.eu :: Using Sorted Sets Of Redis To Delay Execution In ASP.NET Core

clock April 14, 2020 07:33 by author Peter

In a previous article, I showed you how to delay execution via keyspace notifications of Redis in ASP.NET Core, and I will introduce another solution based on Redis.
Sorted Sets, a data structure of Redis, also can help us work it out.

We can make a timestamp as score, and the data as value. Sorted Sets provides a command that can return all the elements in the sorted set  with a score between two special scores. Setting 0 as the minimum score and current timestamp as the maximum score, we can get all the values whose timestamp are less than the current timestamp, and they should be executed at once and should be removed from Redis.
 
Taking a sample for more information.
 
Add some values at first.

ZADD task:delay 1583546835 "180" 
ZADD task:delay 1583546864 "181" 
ZADD task:delay 1583546924 "182"  

Suppose the current timestamp is 1583546860, so we can get all values via the following command.

ZRANGEBYSCORE task:delay 0 1583546860 WITHSCORES LIMIT 0 1

We will get the value 180 from the above sample, and then we can do what we want to do.

Now, let's take a look at how to do this in ASP.NET Core.

Create Project
Create a new ASP.NET Core Web API project and install CSRedisCore.
    <ItemGroup> 
        <PackageReference Include="CSRedisCore" Version="3.4.1" /> 
    </ItemGroup> 


Add an interface named ITaskServices and a class named TaskServices.
    public interface ITaskServices 
    { 
        Task DoTaskAsync(); 
     
        Task SubscribeToDo(); 
    } 
     
    public class TaskServices : ITaskServices 
    {        
        public async Task DoTaskAsync() 
        { 
            // do something here 
            // ... 
     
            // this operation should be done after some min or sec 
     
            var cacheKey = "task:delay"; 
            int sec = new Random().Next(1, 5); 
            var time = DateTimeOffset.Now.AddSeconds(sec).ToUnixTimeSeconds(); 
            var taskId = new Random().Next(1, 10000); 
            await RedisHelper.ZAddAsync(cacheKey, (time, taskId)); 
            Console.WriteLine($"{DateTime.Now.ToString("yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm:ss")} done {taskId} here - {sec}"); 
        } 
     
        public async Task SubscribeToDo() 
        { 
            var cacheKey = "task:delay"; 
            while (true) 
            { 
                var vals = RedisHelper.ZRangeByScore(cacheKey, -1, DateTimeOffset.Now.ToUnixTimeSeconds(), 1, 0); 
     
                if (vals != null && vals.Length > 0) 
                { 
                    var val = vals[0]; 
     
                    // add a lock here may be more better 
                    var rmCount = RedisHelper.ZRem(cacheKey, vals); 
     
                    if (rmCount > 0) 
                    { 
                        Console.WriteLine($"{DateTime.Now.ToString("yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm:ss")} begin to do task {val}"); 
                    } 
                } 
                else 
                { 
                    await Task.Delay(500); 
                } 
            } 
        } 
    } 


Here we will use DateTimeOffset.Now.AddSeconds(sec).ToUnixTimeSeconds() to generate the timestamp, the sec parameter means that we should execute the task after some seconds. For the delay execution, it will poll the values from Redis to consume the tasks, and make it sleep 500 milliseconds if cannot get some values.

When we get a value from Redis, before we execute the delay task, we should remove it from Redis at first.

Here is the entry of this operation.

    [ApiController] 
    [Route("api/tasks")] 
    public class TaskController : ControllerBase 
    { 
        private readonly ITaskServices _svc; 
     
        public TaskController(ITaskServices svc) 
        { 
            _svc = svc; 
        } 
     
        [HttpGet] 
        public async Task<string> Get() 
        { 
            await _svc.DoTaskAsync(); 
            return "done"; 
        } 
    } 


We will put the subscribe to a BackgroundService

    public class SubscribeTaskBgTask : BackgroundService 
    { 
        private readonly ILogger _logger; 
        private readonly ITaskServices _taskServices; 
     
        public SubscribeTaskBgTask(ILoggerFactory loggerFactory, ITaskServices taskServices) 
        { 
            this._logger = loggerFactory.CreateLogger<RefreshCachingBgTask>(); 
            this._taskServices = taskServices; 
        } 
     
        protected override async Task ExecuteAsync(CancellationToken stoppingToken) 
        { 
            stoppingToken.ThrowIfCancellationRequested(); 
            await _taskServices.SubscribeToDo(); 
        } 
    } 


At last, we should register the above services in startup class.
    public class Startup 
    { 
        // ... 
         
        public void ConfigureServices(IServiceCollection services) 
        { 
            var csredis = new CSRedis.CSRedisClient("127.0.0.1:6379"); 
            RedisHelper.Initialization(csredis); 
     
            services.AddSingleton<ITaskServices, TaskServices>(); 
            services.AddHostedService<SubscribeTaskBgTask>(); 
     
            services.AddControllers(); 
        } 
    } 

Here is the result after running this application.



European ASP.NET Core Hosting - HostForLIFE.eu :: Object reference not set to an instance of object

clock April 7, 2020 09:01 by author Peter

Error "object reference not set to an instance of an object"
This is one of the most common errors when developing an application. In this article, I will be presenting five of the most common mistakes that result with this error and will explain how to avoid them.

Why does this error happen?
This error's description speaks for itself but when you do not have much experience in development, it is very difficult to understand. So, this error description says that an object that is being called to get or set its value has no reference. This means that you are trying to access an object that was not instantiated.

Why should I know this?
This is important in order to avoid runtime errors that could possibly expose your sensitive data and this could lead to a vulnerability breach. Vulnerability breaches are usually used by hackers for a cyber attack to steal your data or to take your server offline.

How to avoid exposing code and entities?
You must always wrap code that could possibly throw an exception inside try-catch blocks. There are others security approaches that you can use to protect your data that can be found here.

Common mistakes
Objects used in this sample.

Controller
public class HomeController : Controller 
   { 
       SampleObj sampleObj; 
       SampleChildObj sampleChild; 
       List<string> lstSample; 
       public IActionResult Index() 
       { 
           return View(); 
       } 
 
       public IActionResult About() 
       { 
           ViewData["Message"] = "Your application description page."; 
 
           return View(); 
       } 
 
       public IActionResult Contact() 
       { 
           ViewData["Message"] = "Your contact page."; 
 
           return View(); 
       } 
 
       public IActionResult Error() 
       { 
           return View(); 
       } 
       public IActionResult NewObject() 
       { 
           sampleChild.Item2 = "error"; 
           return View(); 
       } 
 
       public IActionResult ConditionStatement() 
       { 
           if (true == false) 
           { 
               sampleChild = new SampleChildObj(); 
               sampleChild.Item2 = ""; 
           } 
           else 
               sampleChild.Item2 = "error"; 
 
           return View(); 
       } 
       public IActionResult ObjectInsideObject() 
       { 
           sampleObj = new SampleObj(); 
           sampleObj.ChildObj.Item2 = "error"; 
           return View(); 
       } 
       public IActionResult AddInNullList() 
       { 
           lstSample.Add("error"); 
           return View(); 
       } 
   } 

Classes
public class SampleObj 

 
    public string Item1 { get; set; } 
    public SampleChildObj ChildObj { get; set; } 

public class SampleChildObj  

    public string Item2 { get; set; } 


New object not instantiated
Practical example:
Here, we have a sample situation of when we have this error.

public IActionResult NewObject() 

    sampleChild.Item2 = "error"; 
    return View(); 


This happens when you create a new object but do not instantiate it before getting/setting a value.
Condition statement(if, switch)

Practical example:
Here, we have a sample situation of when we have this error,

public IActionResult ConditionStatement() 

    if (true == false) 
    { 
        sampleChild = new SampleChildObj(); 
        sampleChild.Item2 = ""; 
    } 
    else 
        sampleChild.Item2 = "error"; 
 
    return View(); 


Why does this happen?
This is a very common mistake. It happens when you create an object that is going to be instantiated inside a conditional statement but forgets to instantiate it in one of the conditions and try to read/write on it.

Object Inside Object

Practical Example
Here, we have a sample situation of when we have this error:

public IActionResult ObjectInsideObject() 

    sampleObj = new SampleObj(); 
    sampleObj.ChildObj.Item2 = "error"; 
    return View(); 


Why this happens?
It happens when you have an object with many child objects. So, you instantiate the main object but forget to instantiate its child before trying to get/set its value.

Add item in a null list

Practical Example
Here we have a sample situation of when we have this error,
public IActionResult AddInNullList() 

    lstSample.Add("error"); 
    return View(); 
}


Why does this happen?
When you are trying to read/write data in a list that was not instantiated before.

Important
In order to avoid exposing your data, you must always handle exceptions. Read more about how to do that here.
The items listed above are some of the most common ways to throw this type of error but there are many other situations in which we may face it. Always remember to check if your objects are instantiated before reading or writing data into them.

Best practices
Tips about commenting your code, making it more readable in order to help others developers to understand it.
Object naming practices, creating a pattern to name variables, services, methods.
Handling errors to not show sensitive data to your users.
Security tricks to protect your data.
Reading/writing data without breaking your architecture.

*I am planning to write more about common mistakes and to share tips to improve code quality. If you have any specific topic that you would like to read here, please write it below in the comments section.



European ASP.NET Core Hosting - HostForLIFE.eu :: Read and Write a CSV File in ASP.NET Core

clock March 31, 2020 11:06 by author Peter
For this blog, my agenda is to provide a step-by-step solution to read and write CSV files in ASP.NET Core 3.0, and CSVHelper. The Same Logic will work for Web Application, Windows Application, and Console Application. In this post, I'm going to create a sample Console Application to show you the process.

Steps:
  1. Create a Console Application project
  2. Create a student class inside the project
  3. Install the CSVHelper from NuGet Package Manager
  4. Add Mappers folder and inside add a mapper Class for Student
  5. Add Services Folder in the project and Add StudentService Class inside it
  6. Write the Logic inside the main method of Program file as its starting point of the application
Create a Console Application project
Give the Name to The Project as "ReadWriteCSVFile". You can give any name.
 
Create a student class inside the project 
Write the below code inside the Student class:

namespace ReadWriteCSVFile {  
    public class Student {  
        public int RollNo {  
            get;  
            set;  
        }  
        public string Name {  
            get;  
            set;  
        }  
        public string Course {  
            get;  
            set;  
        }  
        public decimal Fees {  
            get;  
            set;  
        }  
        public string Mobile {  
            get;  
            set;  
        }  
        public string City {  
            get;  
            set;  
        }  
    }  

In the next step, we are going to install the CSVHelper package so that it will help us to read and write the CSV file in an easy way.

Now Install the CSVHelper from NuGet Package Manager --Version (12.2.1),

  • Step 1 - Right Click on the Project
  • Step 2 - Go To "Manage NuGet Packages..."
  • Step 3 - Go To Browse Tab then move to the Search area
  • Step 4 - Type "CSVHelper" in the search box

Here you will see a list of packages. Choose the first one and move it to the right-side panel. You will see one option as Version: (If not installed, if you already installed, then you will see both Installed and Version, two options). Select Version 12.2.1 and click on the install button and follow the steps to install successfully.

Add "Mappers" folder and inside it add mapper Class for Student

  • Here you can give any name to the folder and class
  • Give the proper name to the class as "StudentMap"
  • Make this class as sealed

Write the below code inside the StudentMap Class:

namespace ReadWriteCSVFile.Mappers {  
    public sealed class StudentMap: ClassMap < Student > {  
        public StudentMap() {  
            Map(x => x.RollNo).Name("RollNo");  
            Map(x => x.Name).Name("Name");  
            Map(x => x.Course).Name("Course");  
            Map(x => x.Fees).Name("Fees");  
            Map(x => x.Mobile).Name("Mobile");  
            Map(x => x.City).Name("City");  
        }  
    }  

Add "Services" Folder in the project and Add StudentService Class inside it:

  • Here, you can give any name to the folder and class
  • Give the proper name to the class as "StudentService"

Write the below Code inside the StudentService Class

namespace ReadWriteCSVFile.Services {  
    public class StudentService {  
        public List < Student > ReadCSVFile(string location) {  
            try {  
                using(var reader = new StreamReader(location, Encoding.Default))  
                using(var csv = new CsvReader(reader)) {  
                    csv.Configuration.RegisterClassMap < StudentMap > ();  
                    var records = csv.GetRecords < Student > ().ToList();  
                    return records;  
                }  
            } catch (Exception e) {  
                throw new Exception(e.Message);  
            }  
        }  
        public void WriteCSVFile(string path, List < Student > student) {  
            using(StreamWriter sw = new StreamWriter(path, false, new UTF8Encoding(true)))  
            using(CsvWriter cw = new CsvWriter(sw)) {  
                cw.WriteHeader < Student > ();  
                cw.NextRecord();  
                foreach(Student stu in student) {  
                    cw.WriteRecord < Student > (stu);  
                    cw.NextRecord();  
                }  
            }  
        }  
    }  

Write the Logic inside the main method of Program file as its starting point of the application.
Change the code inside the Main method of Program class as shown below:

 

namespace ReadWriteCSVFile {  
    class Program {  
        static void Main(string[] args) {  
            Console.WriteLine("Start CSV File Reading...");  
            var _studentService = new StudentService();  
            var path = @ "D:\Tutorials\Student.csv";  
            //Here We are calling function to read CSV file  
            var resultData = _studentService.ReadCSVFile(path);  
            //Create an object of the Student class  
            Student student = new Student();  
            student.RollNo = 5;  
            student.Name = "Lucy";  
            student.Course = "B.Tech";  
            student.Fees = 75000;  
            student.Mobile = "7788990099";  
            student.City = "Pune";  
            resultData.Add(student);  
            //Here We are calling function to write file  
            _studentService.WriteCSVFile(@ "D:\Tutorials\NewStudentFile.csv", resultData);  
            //Here D: Drive and Tutorials is the Folder name, and CSV File name will be "NewStudentFile.csv"  
            Console.WriteLine("New File Created Successfully.");  
        }  
    }  

 



ASP.NET Core Hosting - HostForLIFE.eu :: Progressive Retry for Network Calls

clock March 18, 2020 11:55 by author Peter

In today's mobile world, many calls across the internet or network could fail for many reasons. Some of the reasons could be the service is busy, the network is slow and many more. For these types of calls, it’s advisable to retry the call if there is an error. The current code base I am working on connects to Salesforce to retrieve and update data. Salesforce is one of those backend services that could experience these types of issues.

To help with these types of network issues, I have added a new method to my open-source code called ProgressiveRetry(). This method will try the call a given number of times. If there is an error, it will wait for a given milliseconds that increases with each error. Below is the code for this call.

    /// <summary> 
    /// Progressive retry for a function call. 
    /// </summary> 
    /// <param name="operation">The operation to perform.</param> 
    /// <param name="retryCount">The retry count (default 3).</param> 
    /// <param name="retryWaitMilliseconds">The retry wait milliseconds (default 100).</param> 
    /// <returns>System.Int32.</returns> 
    public static int ProgressiveRetry(Action operation, byte retryCount = 3,  
                                       int retryWaitMilliseconds = 100) 
    { 
        Encapsulation.TryValidateParam<ArgumentNullException>(operation != null); 
        Encapsulation.TryValidateParam<ArgumentOutOfRangeException>(retryCount > 0); 
        Encapsulation.TryValidateParam<ArgumentOutOfRangeException>(retryWaitMilliseconds > 0); 
      
        var attempts = 0; 
      
        do 
        { 
            try 
            { 
                attempts++; 
     
                 operation(); 
                return attempts; 
     
            } 
            catch (Exception ex) 
            { 
                if (attempts == retryCount) 
                { 
                    throw; 
                } 
      
                Debug.WriteLine(ex.GetAllMessages()); 
      
                Task.Delay(retryWaitMilliseconds * attempts).Wait(); 
                   } 
            } while (true); 
        } 
    } 


Here is example code on how to use ProgressiveRetry().
    var result = false; 
    var count = ExecutionHelper.ProgressiveRetry(() => 
    { 
        result = NetworkHelper.IsHostAvailable("wordpress.com"); 
    } 
    , retryCount: 3, retryWaitMilliseconds: 225); 
    Console.WriteLine($"Host available {result}. Tried call {count} times.");

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ASP.NET Core Hosting - HostForLIFE.eu :: Using Redis To Delay Execution In ASP.NET Core

clock March 3, 2020 11:07 by author Peter

Due to some business requirements, many operations should not begin to execute right away;  they should begin after some seconds, minutes or hours. For example, say there is a task, and it contains two steps. When we finish the first step, the second step should begin after 5 minutes.
 

How can we solve this problem?
Thread.Sleep() and Task.Delay() is a very easy solution that we can use. But it may block our applictions.
 
And in this article, I will introduce a solution based on keyspace notifications of Redis.
 
Here we will use expired events to do it, but this solution also has some limitations , because it may have a significant delay. That means that delay of execution may have smoe error, and will not be very accurate!
 
Let's take a look at this solution.
 
Set Up Redis
Keyspace notifications is a feature available since 2.8.0, so the version of Redis should not be less than 2.8.0.
 
We should modify an important configuration so that we can enable this feature.
    ############################# Event notification ############################## 
    
    # Redis can notify Pub/Sub clients about events happening in the key space. 
    # This feature is documented at http://redis.io/topics/notifications 
    # 
    # ......... 
    # 
    #  By default all notifications are disabled because most users don't need 
    #  this feature and the feature has some overhead. Note that if you don't 
    #  specify at least one of K or E, no events will be delivered. 
    notify-keyspace-events "" 


The default value of notify-keyspace-events is empty, we should modify it to Ex.
    notify-keyspace-events "Ex" 

Then we can startup the Redis server.

Create Project
Create a new ASP.NET Core Web API project and install CSRedisCore.
    <Project Sdk="Microsoft.NET.Sdk.Web"> 
     
      <PropertyGroup> 
        <TargetFramework>netcoreapp3.1</TargetFramework> 
      </PropertyGroup> 
     
      <ItemGroup> 
        <PackageReference Include="CSRedisCore" Version="3.4.1" /> 
      </ItemGroup> 
     
    </Project> 

Add an interface named ITaskServices and a class named TaskServices.
    public interface ITaskServices 
    { 
        void SubscribeToDo(string keyPrefix); 
     
        Task DoTaskAsync(); 
    } 
     
    public class TaskServices : ITaskServices 
    { 
        public async Task DoTaskAsync() 
        { 
            // do something here 
            // ... 
     
            // this operation should be done after some min or sec 
            var taskId = new Random().Next(1, 10000); 
            int sec = new Random().Next(1, 5); 
     
            await RedisHelper.SetAsync($"task:{taskId}", "1", sec); 
            await RedisHelper.SetAsync($"other:{taskId + 10000}", "1", sec); 
        } 
     
        public void SubscribeToDo(string keyPrefix) 
        { 
            RedisHelper.Subscribe( 
                ("__keyevent@0__:expired", arg => 
                    { 
                        var msg = arg.Body; 
                        Console.WriteLine($"recive {msg}"); 
                        if (msg.StartsWith(keyPrefix)) 
                        { 
                            // read the task id from expired key 
                            var val = msg.Substring(keyPrefix.Length); 
                            Console.WriteLine($"Redis + Subscribe {DateTime.Now.ToString("yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm:ss")} begin to do task {val}"); 
                        } 
                    }) 
            ); 
        } 
    } 


As you can see, we set a redis key with expiration. The expiration is the delay time.
 
For the delay execution, we can find it in SubscribeToDo method. It subscribes a channel named __keyevent@0__:expired.
 
When a key is expired, redis server will publish a message to this channel, and subscribers will receive it.
 
After reciving the notification, the client will begin to do the job.
 
Before the client receives the notification, the delay job will not be executed, so that it can help us to do the job for a delay.
 
Here is the entry of this operation.
    [ApiController] 
    [Route("api/tasks")] 
    public class TaskController : ControllerBase 
    { 
        private readonly ITaskServices _svc; 
     
        public TaskController(ITaskServices svc) 
        { 
            _svc = svc; 
        } 
     
        [HttpGet] 
        public async Task<string> Get() 
        { 
            await _svc.DoTaskAsync(); 
            System.Console.WriteLine("done here"); 
            return "done"; 
        } 
    } 


Put the subscriber to a BackgroundService, so that it can run in the background.
    public class SubscribeTaskBgTask : BackgroundService 
    { 
        private readonly ILogger _logger; 
        private readonly ITaskServices _taskServices; 
     
        public SubscribeTaskBgTask(ILoggerFactory loggerFactory, ITaskServices taskServices) 
        { 
            this._logger = loggerFactory.CreateLogger<RefreshCachingBgTask>(); 
            this._taskServices = taskServices; 
        } 
     
        protected override Task ExecuteAsync(CancellationToken stoppingToken) 
        { 
            stoppingToken.ThrowIfCancellationRequested(); 
     
            _taskServices.SubscribeToDo("task:"); 
     
            return Task.CompletedTask; 
        } 
    } 


At last, we should register the above services in startup class.
    public class Startup 
    { 
        // ... 
         
        public void ConfigureServices(IServiceCollection services) 
        { 
            var csredis = new CSRedis.CSRedisClient("127.0.0.1:6379"); 
            RedisHelper.Initialization(csredis); 
     
            services.AddSingleton<ITaskServices, TaskServices>(); 
            services.AddHostedService<SubscribeTaskBgTask>(); 
     
            services.AddControllers(); 
        } 
    } 


Here is the result after running this application.

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ASP.NET Core Hosting - HostForLIFE.eu :: How to Steps To Generate Excel Using EPPlus?

clock February 25, 2020 08:01 by author Peter

My work is to create an excel file, which will contain 3 fields: Address, Latitude and longitude.The user will upload an Address in an excel file and after reading the addresses from an excel file, I have to retrieve Latitude and longitude, using Bing MAP API and build another excel file, which can contain Addresses beside the Latitude and longitude of that address and download the new excel file to the user's end.

Create a MVC Application and add EPPLUS from NuGet package manager to your solution.

Now, Add the code to your .cshtml page.

<h2>Upload File</h2> 
 
sing (Html.BeginForm("Upload", "Home", null, FormMethod.Post, new { enctype = "multipart/form-data" })) 
  { 
      @Html.AntiForgeryToken() 
      @Html.ValidationSummary() 
 
      <div class="form-group"> 
          <input type="file" id="dataFile" name="upload" /> 
      </div> 
 
      <div class="form-group"> 
          <input type="submit" value="Upload" class="btn btn-default" /> 
      </div> 
 
       
  } 


And then, add the code, mentioned below to your controller.

[HttpPost] 
        public ActionResult Upload(HttpPostedFileBase upload) 
        { 
            if (ModelState.IsValid) 
            { 
                if (Path.GetExtension(upload.FileName) == ".xlsx") 
                { 
                    ExcelPackage package = new ExcelPackage(upload.InputStream); 
            //From This part we will read excel file 
                    DataTable dt = ExcelPackageExtensions.ToDataTable(package); 
 
 
                    DataTable dtExcel = new DataTable(); 
                    dtExcel.Columns.Add("Address", typeof(String)); 
                    dtExcel.Columns.Add("LAT", typeof(Double)); 
                    dtExcel.Columns.Add("LONG", typeof(Double)); 
 
                    List<Coordinates> lstCor = new List<Coordinates>(); 
                    for (int i = 0; i < dt.Rows.Count; i++) 
                    { 
                        //Fill the new data Table to generate new excel file 
                    } 
            //This method will generate new excel and download the same 
                    generateExcel(dtExcel);                  
                } 
            } 
            return View(); 
        } 


“ExcelPackageExtensions.ToDataTable(package)” for this create a new class with the name ExcelPackageExtensions and create a static method with the name “ToDataTable()”. The code is mentioned below.

public static class ExcelPackageExtensions 
    { 
        public static DataTable ToDataTable(this ExcelPackage package) 
        { 
            ExcelWorksheet workSheet = package.Workbook.Worksheets.First(); 
            DataTable table = new DataTable(); 
            foreach (var firstRowCell in workSheet.Cells[1, 1, 1, workSheet.Dimension.End.Column]) 
            { 
                table.Columns.Add(firstRowCell.Text); 
            } 
 
            for (var rowNumber = 2; rowNumber <= workSheet.Dimension.End.Row; rowNumber++) 
            { 
                var row = workSheet.Cells[rowNumber, 1, rowNumber, workSheet.Dimension.End.Column]; 
                var newRow = table.NewRow(); 
                foreach (var cell in row) 
                { 
                    newRow[cell.Start.Column - 1] = cell.Text; 
                } 
                table.Rows.Add(newRow); 
            } 
            return table; 
        } 
    } 

Now, add the code part to generate and download an Excel file.
[NonAction] 
        public void generateExcel(DataTable Dtvalue) 
        { 
            string excelpath = ""; 
            excelpath = @"C:\Excels\abc.xlsx";//Server.MapPath("~/UploadExcel/" + DateTime.UtcNow.Date.ToString() + ".xlsx"); 
            FileInfo finame = new FileInfo(excelpath); 
            if (System.IO.File.Exists(excelpath)) 
            { 
                System.IO.File.Delete(excelpath); 
            } 
            if (!System.IO.File.Exists(excelpath)) 
            { 
                ExcelPackage excel = new ExcelPackage(finame); 
                var sheetcreate = excel.Workbook.Worksheets.Add(DateTime.UtcNow.Date.ToString()); 
                if (Dtvalue.Rows.Count > 0) 
                { 
                    for (int i = 0; i < Dtvalue.Rows.Count; ) 
                    { 
                        sheetcreate.Cells[i + 1, 1].Value = Dtvalue.Rows[i][0].ToString(); 
                        sheetcreate.Cells[i + 1, 2].Value = Dtvalue.Rows[i][1].ToString(); 
                        sheetcreate.Cells[i + 1, 3].Value = Dtvalue.Rows[i][2].ToString(); 
                        i++; 
                    } 
                } 
                //sheetcreate.Cells[1, 1, 1, 25].Style.Font.Bold = true; 
                //excel.Save(); 
 
                var workSheet = excel.Workbook.Worksheets.Add("Sheet1"); 
                //workSheet.Cells[1, 1].LoadFromCollection(data, true); 
                using (var memoryStream = new MemoryStream()) 
                { 
                    Response.ContentType = "application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.spreadsheetml.sheet"; 
                    Response.AddHeader("content-disposition", "attachment;  filename=Contact.xlsx"); 
                    excel.SaveAs(memoryStream); 
                    memoryStream.WriteTo(Response.OutputStream); 
                    Response.Flush(); 
                    Response.End(); 
                } 
            } 
 
        } 

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