A key component of memory management in contemporary programming languages like C# is garbage collection (GC). The GC system is essential to.NET Core because it automatically recovers memory that is no longer in use, eliminating memory leaks and guaranteeing effective memory use. The purpose of this article is to examine the techniques and the parts that make up the garbage collection system in .NET Core.

Comprehending Trash Collection
Effective memory management is essential for developing strong applications, especially with C# and.NET Core. Garbage Collection (GC) is a key component of this ecosystem's automated memory management system, effectively managing memory deallocation and allocation. The process of automatically recovering memory used by objects that an application no longer needs is known as garbage collection. This is accomplished in.NET Core via a highly developed garbage collector that operates in the background, regularly searching the managed heap for things that have not been referenced and recovering their memory. Fundamentally, managed heap memory—the memory used by C# applications to store instantiated objects—is allocated and released by Garbage Collection in.NET Core.

Garbage Collection Components in.NET Core

  • Managed Heap: The managed heap is a section of memory set aside for the purpose of storing application-created objects by the Common Language Runtime (CLR). The managed heap in.NET Core is separated into three generations: Gen0, Gen1, and Gen2. Initially assigned to Gen0, objects are promoted to higher generations as long as they survive garbage collection cycles.
  • Garbage Collector: In.NET Core, the garbage collector is the main element in charge of memory reclamation. It runs in the background, periodically scanning the managed heap to locate and retrieve things that the application can no longer access. To maximize collection efficiency and reduce interference with application performance, the garbage collector employs a variety of algorithms and heuristics.
  • Finalization Queue: Finalization is supported by.NET Core, enabling objects to carry out cleanup operations prior to being picked up by garbage collectors. The finalization queue is a dedicated queue for objects that need to be finalized. In order to guarantee that their finalizers are called prior to their reclamation, objects in the finalization queue are handled independently during garbage collection.
  • Large Object Heap (LOH): In.NET Core, large objects (usually those greater than 85,000 bytes) are stored in the Large Object Heap, a separate section of the managed heap. Large items are treated differently by the trash collector due to their size in order to reduce fragmentation and enhance performance.

Three basic steps are involved in the operation of this automated process:

  • Marking: To determine which objects are still in use, the GC begins by iterating through all object references, beginning at the roots.
  • Relocating: The GC compacts the heap by moving active objects closer to one another after detecting them, improving speed and memory layout. It modifies references in parallel to take into account the updated memory addresses.
  • Clearing: The last phase involves the GC freeing up memory that has been occupied by objects that are no longer referenced, freeing up resources for new allocations.

Including Future Generations to Increase Efficiency
Generational memory management is one of the main techniques that.NET GC uses to increase efficiency. The managed heap is divided into three generations, each of which serves different object categories:

  • Gen 0: This segment accommodates short-lived objects, which typically have a transient lifespan within the application. As a result, a significant portion of memory reclamation occurs in this generation.
  • Gen 1: Positioned as a buffer between short-lived and long-lived objects, Generation 1 serves to segregate objects based on their longevity. Objects surviving multiple garbage collections in Gen 0 are promoted to Gen 1.
  • Gen 2: Comprising long-lived objects, Generation 2 hosts entities expected to persist throughout the application's lifecycle. Garbage collections within this segment are less frequent due to the enduring nature of its occupants.


Within the.NET Core ecosystem, garbage collection is a fundamental component of memory management because it provides an automated solution to the challenges associated with memory allocation and deallocation. Through an understanding of GC's inner workings and an embrace of generational memory management, developers may create apps that are more resilient to changing workloads and perform better overall. The finalization queue, managed heap, garbage collector, and other parts of.NET Core integrate flawlessly to automate memory management and offer a dependable execution environment for.NET Core programs.